Landscape character and buildings
Settlements and monuments
Human settlements as well as solitary constructions form a part of the harmonious countryside of the region of Třeboň. On the whole there are 68 villages and smaller settlements, and there are a lot of lonely houses scattered about the countryside (pondmaster’s lodges, gamekeeper’s houses, farmsteads). The region of Třeboň has, prevailingly, brick folk architecture, which applies to the entire South Bohemia. Even despite the development of large-scale agricultural production after 1948, when large-capacity buildings of animal production were built in the country and the original rural homesteads were often unsuitably reconstructed to one-family houses of the town type, a lot farmsteads, chapels, village smithies and wayside crosses in fields survived in a number of places. They contain elements of the “rural baroque”, the use of which spread to the region of Třeboň from the north-western and northern parts of the area in the late 18th and in the first half of the 19th centuries. In some villages, the unique building structure based on the local ecological conditions (Kojákovice), with a large number of original farmsteads and small buildings remained preserved without major changes. Some kinds of the buildings preserved cannot be found outside this area. They include especially pondmaster’s lodges scattered among fishponds, and wooden hay barns unique in Bohemia, the best-known group of which can be seen in Mokré louky/Wet meadows by Třeboň. In over a third of villages more than 150 buildings are protected as historical monuments.
The area centre, the town of Třeboň (population of approximately 9000, including the surrounding villages) has been a town conservation area since 1976. It contains typical historical buildings with a large number of elements of historical value, and a vast chateau complex with an adjoining park. Třeboň itself has over 100 historically protected buildings, and more than 40 hay barns are protected, too. The best-known places include the square of Třeboň surrounded by burghers’ houses with arcades and historically valuable gables, four preserved town gates (Budějovická, Hradecká, Svinenská and Novohradská) and the Schwarzenberg Tomb standing by the pond Svět. The town was probably founded in the early 12th century as a small settlement at the crossroads in the Austrian borderland. The historical name Wittingau is derived from the time when it was ruled by the family of Vítek. The real development of Třeboň set in in the second half of the 14th century, when the Lords of Rožmberk became the rulers of the domain. This era gave rise to the Church of St. Giles and the Virgin Mary the Queen, situated in the town centre, with the adjoining complex of the former Augustinian monastery (national cultural monument). At the beginning of the 16th century the Rožmberk fishpond builder, Štěpánek Netolický laid foundations to the famous fishpond system, which was further improved by Jakub Krčín and other pond builders. Its elements, e.g. the stream of the Zlatá stoka (the Golden Canal), Nová řeka and the fishponds Svět and Rožmberk are regarded as unique monuments of technology until today, and are protected as national cultural heritage according to law. There are also six village conservation zones (Bošilec, Pístina, Ponědrážka, Žíteč, Lutová, Kojákovice) in the region of Třeboň, and others are proposed for declaration (Lužnice, Nítovice, Stříbřec). More detailed information is available at the National Heritage Institute in České Budějovice, cultural sections of respective municipal authorities and of the Regional Authority of the South Bohemian Region, or building offices. At present, a very topical matter is preparing the proposal of putting selected fishpond constructions of the region of Třeboň (Zlatá stoka, Nová řeka, fishponds Svět and Rožmberk) and the historical core of Třeboň on the UNESCO World Heritage List under the name “Třeboň Fishery Heritage“
From the viewpoint of territorial planning, the region of Třeboň is part of the existing territorial plan of the large territorial unit of the České Budějovice residential regional agglomeration; at present a new regional territorial plan of the Region of South Bohemia is being prepared. Most municipalities have their own territorial plans, and planning studies are being prepared for the others. In 1996 a study was worked out for the region of Třeboň “Assessment of the territory of the Třeboňsko PLA/BR from the viewpoint of landscape character“, serving as one of the important materials when judging the suitability of setting buildings in the environment of the PLA. Before all major interferences in the countryside, individual judgement of a particular construction project influence on the landscape character is worked out for the state administration. Construction regulations in the territory of Třeboňsko PLA.
Assessment of the territory from the viewpoint of landscape character (ATELIER V, Doc. Ing. arch. I. Vorel, CSc. et al.)
The preparation of the "Assessment of the territory from the viewpoint of landscape character" was focused on creating a material that would determine zones in the Třeboňsko PLA and the Biosphere Reserve, or zones of landscape character protection, graded according to the values of the landscape character and the importance of its protection.